What Does Sleep Deprived Mean & How to Overcome It

7 Min Read | By Leigh Horan

Last Modified 8 December 2022   First Added 20 February 2019

This article was written and reviewed in line with our editorial policy.

We’re all aware of just how crucial a good night’s sleep is to properly function throughout the day. A bad night’s sleep can leave us pouring orange juice on our cereal, dropping toothpaste down our clothes and frantically hunting for the glasses on our heads. These are all frustrations that could easily have been avoided by catching a few more Zzzs. In fact, The 2022 UK Sleep Survey revealed that only 5% of people said they always wake up feeling refreshed, a 38% decrease since 2016.

So, how do we know we are not getting enough sleep and what can we do to overcome sleep deprivation?

What is sleep deprivation?

The term sleep deprivation simply means the state of lacking enough sleep, research suggests 1 in 3 people don’t get enough sleep each night. According to the National Sleep Foundation, sufficient sleep is between 7 and 9 hours for adults. So, any less than 7-9 hours’ sleep over a period of time would mean you are sleep deprived unless you’re in the tiny percentage of the population considered short sleepers.
Sleep problems and musculoskeletal pain

Signs that you're sleep deprived

Excessive daytime sleepiness and extreme fatigue during the day are the most common indications and symptoms of sleep deprivation. According to the Sleep Foundation, other signs include:

  • Slower thinking
  • Mood changes 
  • Lack of concentration
  • Worsened memory
  • Reduced reaction times

Let’s explore the effects of these symptoms in more detail…

Sleep deprivation effects

It’s common knowledge that a lack of sleep is known to cause poor moods and, of course, generally feeling tired. However, sleep deprivation, particularly over prolonged periods of time, can cause more serious health issues such as heart disease, diabetes and obesity. Beyond the self, a lack of sleep can also negatively affect your relationships.

How does sleep deprivation affect your brain?

When lack of sleep becomes drastic, the brain actively begins to switch off sections that aren’t necessary for survival. This means that brain function is impaired massively, affecting every single process in our bodies. Drowsiness affects reaction time in a similar way to alcohol, which leads to both minor and major accidents. Lack of sleep also impairs our ability to consolidate what we’ve learnt the previous day. This is a process which occurs during deep sleep.

Laeeq Shamsuddin, MD at Midwestern Regional Medical Centre says: “In the acute setting, sleep deprivation can lead to accidents, mood fluctuations, memory and cognitive dysfunction. Studies have shown sleep-deprived subjects did worse on memory games and math tests compared to when they received a restful night of sleep.”

Essentially, losing out on sleep means losing out on learning. This means students that don’t receive sufficient amounts of rest may eventually fall behind in their studies. Potentially this could create brain damage, according to flyby.

Neurologist Michele Bellesi of the Marche Polytechnic University conducted a study on the brains of sleep-deprived mice. The team measured the activity of glial cells in their brains. These cells ‘clean up’ the brain’s synapses and expose damaged cells and debris. They found that the glial cells were active in 6% of synapses in well-rested mice – less than half of that in sleep-deprived mice who had glial cell activity in 13.5% of their brains’ synapses.

While this may sound like the sleep-deprived mice had squeaky clean brains, it leads to a slightly more damaging outcome. This same type of overactive glial cell behaviour is present in the brains of patients with Alzheimer’s disease and other forms of dementia. So, it’s thought that continuous or ‘chronic’ sleep deprivation can be a contributing factor to these illnesses later in life.

Reactions, emotions, and memory

Lack of sleep usually has immediate effects on your reactions, emotions, and memory. It’s harder to control your mood meaning you usually become more sensitive to things that usually wouldn’t bother you. This is because the amygdala (the area of the brain that controls emotion) becomes overactive when you don’t get enough sleep. It means your reactions and emotions are heightened and less controllable.

Your memory can also become altered due to the change in the function of your hippocampus. If you wake up feeling disorientated and manage to pack a tub of butter rather than your lunch, it could be down to your poor sleep the night before. The Independent says:

‘Just one bad night’s sleep impairs the hippocampus, which is the critical region for storing new memories. This means people struggle to remember new pieces of information.’

Woman power napping on the train.

How sleep deprivation affects daily function

The importance of sleep in relation to daily function has long been a contentious issue. People are so unwilling to ‘waste time’ that they attempt to cut down on the hours of sleep they get each night. Margaret Thatcher famously survived on only four hours of sleep a night. However, unless you’re incredibly in demand, like her, then it’s unlikely that you really need to go without. According to Business Insider UK, even in such a time of crisis as WWII, Winston Churchill understood the importance of getting enough rest. He believed napping was the key to his wartime success.

The effects of long-term sleep deprivation

After prolonged sleep deprivation, the body’s hormone production goes awry. The body over-produces the stress hormone, cortisol, which can then break down cortisol in the skin. This means that, over time, living on little sleep can effectively put years on your face by adding under-eye bags and fine wrinkles. Unbalanced hormones can also lead to low libido, an inability to recognise positive facial expressions and body language, and, sadly, depression.

Statistics on sleep deprivation:

Data provided by Sleep Cycle uncovered the average amount of sleep has dropped from 8 to 6.8 hours across the world, so you’re not alone if you are suffering. Sleep deprivation has caused some of the most tragic events in our recent history. The worst nuclear explosion in history, at Chernobyl, 1986, occurred whilst engineers worked a shift that was over 13 hours. The accident at Three Mile Island in 1979 had the same cause, as did the Exxon Valdez oil spill in 1989. These accidents had a massive impact on the people and environment in close proximity to them. The effects have had severe ramifications in the years since.

Sadly, around 100,000 deaths in motoring accidents are caused by drivers suffering from fatigue according to the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration. This shows just how widespread the problem of sleep deprivation is. Driving tired can be just as disastrous as drink driving and is to be avoided at all costs. What this all serves to prove is that extremely drastic results can occur from sleep deprivation. If you think you could be suffering from it, you should contact your doctor for professional advice.

What is Light Sleeping

How to avoid sleep deprivation and improve your sleep

Having the capacity to survive on little sleep has become somewhat of a competition in modern times. Working long hours, spending time with family and friends, exercising and pursuing personal ambitions can all leave us feeling a little strained. Getting a good night’s sleep each night should be a top priority too.

To improve your sleep, you first need to decipher what’s causing the problems. Something as simple as light coming through the window or living on a busy road can wake you up. The best way to ensure good quality sleep is by preparing yourself for bed and giving yourself the ideal sleep space. Here are some tips to remember:

  • Ensure your mattress, pillows and bedding are comfortable for you. Use our bed and mattress guides for more help.
  • Shut off all light sources and get some blackout curtains for ultimate peace.
  • If you live in a noisy environment, invest in a white noise machine or earplugs.
  • Get yourself a proper bedtime routine. Follow these relaxation techniques or do some yoga to help you unwind before you get your head down.

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